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Skip down to Genetic Abbreviations

Acclimate To introduce new fish into an aquarium or bowl by slowly letting them become accustomed to their new water and temperature. 
Alleles Another word for Genes
Ammonia This is the product of waste and left over, decaying food. This can be very stressful on bettas and is why frequent water changes are necessary. See Cycle for more info.
Anal Fin The bottom fin of your betta. (See diagram)
Belly Slider  This is a common reference to young fry that suffer from Swim Bladder Disorder.
BF  Abbreviation for Butterfly pattern.
BSS Abbreviation for Baby Brine Shrimp, a food for fry. (More information)  
Bubble Nest Bubbles at the surface of the water blown by your betta. Will form a nest and sometimes appear foamy. There are all different sizes and shapes of Bubble nests depending on your male's ambition and water quality. A Bubble Nest is a a sign of good health and desire to spawn. 
Butterfly Pattern of coloration on a betta. Betta's body and first half of fins will all be one color and the outer half of their fins will be another color.  (See example)
Cambodian This is a color term, it refers to the reduction of dark pigment on the bettas body. Resulting in a light colored body with darker fins.   (See example)
Caudal Technical term for Tail. (See diagram)
Chloramines Chlorine + Ammonia that is added to many public water systems. This is toxic to fish. This does not dissipate like Chlorine and must be removed with a chloramine remover.
Chlorine Chemical added to many public water systems. This is toxic to fish. If water is left to sit out for 1-2 days and it will dissipate from the water. You can also use a dechlorinator to remove the Chlorine from water.
Combtail Slight ray extensions on the edge of the betta's fins. (See example)
Conditioning To prepare bettas for spawning. (See instructions)
Community Tank Aquarium setup with numerous fish of various species. A community tank can inhabit one male betta only but can house several female bettas. (Compatible Tankmates)
Crowntail Extremely extended rays on a betta's fins, most importantly their tail. Crowntails are an extreme form of a Combtail. (See example)
Culling or "To Cull" Separating the desirable bettas from the less desirable ones. This does not always mean killing the less desirable, but in many cases it does.
Culls Bettas that are not desirable. Usually they are defective in some way from minor to major flaws. Minor flaws include color and finnage flaws and  major flaws include deformities.
Cycle The process in which an aquarium goes through 3 chemical stages. Ammonia will build up until it spikes causing the nitrites to begin breaking down the ammonia. The nitrites will then begin to spike until the nitrates begin breaking them down. In turn the final stage the nitrates spike and level off. Once this occurs your tank is stable and fully cycled.
Deportment This is in reference to a betta's behavior or attitude. The more active and confident he is the better his deportment.
Display When a betta struts, shows off and flares (extends) his fins fully. He will usually do this to impress females or intimidate other males.
Dorsal The top fin of your betta. (See diagram)
Double Ray In reference to a crown tail, they will have two rays in each extension.
Double Tail A betta's tail that has two sections or lobes. Ideally these lobes would be even with a deep split between them. (See example)
DR Double Ray
DT Abbreviation for Double Tail. 
Egg bound Condition where a female becomes bloated with eggs and cannot release them. (More Information)
F1/F2.... Indicates which generation your bettas are. F1 indicates the first generation between two unrelated bettas. F2 is the second generation where brother/sister of father/daughter and so on, were bred together. It would continue on to F3, F4 until you bred one of them to an unrelated betta, making it F1 again.
Flare When a betta extends his gills out and spreads his fins to their fullest extent. This usually occurs when he is displaying for a female or attempting to intimidate another male.
Fry Baby fish.
Geno Short for Genotype.
Genotype Indicates that a betta carries this trait or genes. In example 'DT Geno' would indicate that the betta carries the Double Tail gene.
Green Water Water that has a considerable amount of Algae and appears green.
Grizzled A color that is normally a pastel betta with sporadic dark pigment on it's body.
Grow-Out Tank Tank for your fry or juveniles to grow in. A grow out tank should have ample room for all the babies to grow considering their age and numbers.
Halfmoon A Tail shape where their tail has a 180 spread with straight outer rays. These are very gorgeous and hard to produce. 
Infusoria A first food for fry, microscopic organisms. (More Information)
Jarring Removing your young males form the grow out tank and placing them in their own jars or containers. This is done to prevent fighting between juveniles that can result in ripped fins.
Juvenile A Young betta that is definitely past the fry stage but not yet an adult. I usually consider my bettas juveniles once they start looking like little bettas instead of little clear babies. I stop considering them juveniles when they start being jarred and their sex is evident. 
Labyrinth The organ that bettas use to breathe from the surface of the water instead of using their gills to breathe from within the water.
Marble Pattern term, (See example)
Microworms A small, easy to culture nematode. One of fry's, (See example)
Nitrates After Nitrites are produced and is at a peak level, Nitrates will begin forming and 'feeding' off of the Nitrites . See Cycle for more info. 
Nitrites After Ammonia is produced and is at a peak level, Nitrites will begin forming and 'feed' from the Ammonia. See Cycle for more info. 
Non-Red Non-Red is the technical term for yellow. This gene keep red pigment from forming causing the fish to appear yellow. 
Non-Red2 Non-Red2 is the theoretical term for orange. 
NR Non - Red abbreviation.
NR2 Abbreviation for Non-Red2 (theoretically Orange)
Opaque A milky-white deposit that will appear most strongly on the betta's head. It can make a pastel blue betta appear white. Opaque 'White' bettas are technically steel colored but the opaque deposits make them appear white.
Outcross Introducing fresh genes by breeding an unrelated betta into an established line. This is important to do after so many generations of inbreeding to prevent weakening the line. Deformities can also result from inbreeding too long which is another reason you 'outcross'.
Pair Male & Female
pH This is the acidic condition of your water. A 7.0 ph is neutral, above 7.0 is alkaline and below 7.0 is acidic. Bettas do best in a STABLE pH, so find a steady one and stick with it. 
Pheno Short for Phenotype. 
Phenotype Indicates that a betta exhibits a certain gene or trait. In example 'DT Pheno' would indicate that the betta exhibits a Double Tail.
Piebald A betta with a flesh colored face regardless of the color of his body & fins. (See example)
Punnet Square A Genetic tool to determine what percentage the genotype and phenotype of your fry will be for certain traits.
Red Loss This gene will cause red to disappear in a betta as it grows older. This is an excellent gene to have in your bettas that you do not want to have red, like Opaque Whites and blues.
Ray or Rays These are the lines you see in the betta's fins. They are the support for the fins. The rays in the tail will in many cases split and branch out. In crown tails it is the rays that extend past the membrane of the fins causing the crown appearance.
Spawn or Spawning This is what the mating of a male and female betta is called. See our Breeder's Corner for more info.
ST Abbreviation for Single Tail.
Single Tail A Betta with one tail section or lobe. This is the normal betta tail. (See example)
Trio Three bettas, usually one male and two females but it can also consist of two males and one female. Always ask the breeder to be sure.
Unsexed This is used to refer to bettas that are too young to have their gender determined yet.
Ventrals The two fins that hang down under the betta's front belly. (See diagram)
Variegated fins A color term, refers to the streaking of color in fins. It also is the gene that produces Butterflies. (See example)

Genetic Abbreviations

c Cambodia Recessive
Keeps black pigmentation from forming on the body or greatly reduces it. Body then appears lighter than the fins. (See example)
b Blonde Recessive
Reduces black
B1 Green Incomplete Dominance
Iridescent color of blues. 
B1B1 - Green/Turquoise
(See example)
B1b1 - Royal Blue
(See example)
b1b1 - Steel Blue
(See example)
dt Double Tail Recessive
Two tail lobes and wider dorsal. Usually will increase the width of finnage on ST/dt. (See example)
Er or R Extended Red Dominant
Red is spread over the body as well as fins. (See example)
HM Half Moon Unknown
180 Tail spread with straight outer rays. (See example)
L Red Loss
Red color fades Dominant
m Melano Recessive
Increases black pigment greatly. Females are 99% infertile. (See example)
mb Marble Recessive
Causes color or lack of color. (See example)
nr Non-Red Recessive
Stops the red pigmentation from producing at the yellow stage, fish then appears yellow. (See example)
nr2 Non-Red 2 Recessive
Stops the red pigmentation from producing at the orange stage, fish then appears orange. This is still in experimental stages (See example)
Op Opaque Incomplete Dominance
Controls the deposit of the opaque layer. (See example)
p Comb Tail Recessive
Slight ray extension past the fin webbing  (See example)
P Veil Tail Dominant
Long, sloping tail (See example)
Si Spread Iridocytes Dominant
This controls the spread of iridescence on the body.
ST Single Tail Dominant
Single Tail Lobe (See example)
Vf Variegated Fins Dominant
Streaking of color in the fins. This gene produces Butterflies. (See example)
w White Eye Recessive
This controls the color in the outer ring of a betta's eye.
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Last update:
  March 23, 2009 10:27 PM CST

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